In the course of QUNOs work on the situation of women in prison, it became clear that imprisonment of women had an enormous impact upon children. This publication concerns babies and young children who stay in prison with their mothers. There are no obvious right or wrong answers to several of the dilemmas raised: neither separating babies and young children from their mother nor imprisoning them with their mother is desirable. This research tries to outline what the rights of the child in such a situation are, and how they can best be protected. Some examples of strategies and good practices have been included. Also included are guidelines and suggestions for drafting legislation, regulations, policies and programmes regarding babies and small children residing in prisons.