This is QUNO's initial publication on the question of women in prison, and their children. It is detailed, and as a preliminary research paper, it deals with a wide range of issues. It first provides an overview of and statistics concerning women in prison as a whole. It then looks at different groups of women – indigenous women, foreign nationals, transgender prisoners - and how they are affected by imprisonment. The paper then looks at mothers in prison and their children – whether imprisoned with or separated from their mothers. Perspectives on healthcare for women in prison are offered. Finally, there is a section on abuse, inappropriate procedures and torture that women in prison may face.